Day 1, Nov 9 (Monday)
Arts and Humanities
Session Chair: Dr. Jea Agnes Buera
Rapporteur: Prof. Jeffrey Asuncion
IT Specialist: Ms. Kristine Bernadette P. Pelaez
AH01Graphic Arts in BACA Theses
Author: Dennis Andrew S. Aguinaldo
Abstract: I will present simultaneous regard for both word and image in the theses of recent alumni: illustrated children’s stories in Nicolette Bautista’s “Hiding Places” (2017), illustrated and annotated campus landscapes in Villanueva’s “Sangandaan” (2019), and lyrical essay with origami in Dyna Mariel Bade’s “Unfold” (2018).
“Hiding Places” uses four narratives rendered in distinct styles to probe the possible reasons for a child’s imaginative escape (for example, a mother’s failed pregnancy in the story “Someday Dresses” and the separation of parents in “Rain Built the Flower House”). In “Sangandaan,” Villanueva captures landscapes of the campus in ink and watercolor. Each spread is then marked with history, gossip, humor, and advice often subtly juxtaposed to produce wit. Bade’s “Unfold” features clean and simple origami steps to parallel and ultimately frame the concealment of childhood emotional turmoil.
This critical discussion supports pedagogical intent: a goal to deploy hybrid works from our alumni to aid our classes (ARTS 1, PHILARTS 1, ENG 152, ENG 155, and others) in fashioning creative and critical responses to art and literature.
Keywords: Literature, Graphic Arts, Hybrid Literature, Children’s Story, Pedagogy
AH02Exploring the Meaning of Immersion in a Live Role-Playing Game
Authors: Ana Katrina P. de Jesus and Gian Carlo U. de Jesus
Abstract: Immersion is described as “the mental state of being completely absorbed or engaged with an activity” (Bonasio, 2019). The concept of immersive experience is often associated with games and virtual reality. Various studies have forwarded that immersion in learning increases student engagement and promotes learning retention. However, most studies delve on immersion aided by immersive digital technologies. In this particular study, the focus is on what immersion means for learners who engage in a live role-playing game or what can also be described as immersive play. The play “Katipuneros RPG: Bisperas ng Himagsikan” invites audiences to join a secret revolutionary movement by performing tasks and challenges, and evading Spanish guards in the process.
Aimed at exploring the meaning of immersion, this study made use of in-depth interviews and focus group discussion to collect data. Through purposive sampling, participants with intimate knowledge of the immersive play experiences were chosen. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and analysed using open and axial coding. Findings revealed that immersion happens through activating, supporting, and enacting belief in the playworld. Immersion involves transitioning between the actual world (their present selves) and the playworld (self that emerges in their interactions with the other players). Once a person is immersed, he/she inhabits the play world, and assumes the role he/she is playing. This is characterized by present moment awareness where players respond spontaneously to challenges, and do not notice the passing of time and feelings of exhaustion. Overall, players’ experiences revealed that being immersed leads to engagement, enactment, and embodiment.
This study sheds light on qualities of a learning environment that engages learners, even without the aid of immersive digital technologies. This also has important implications for educators who are designing learning aimed at Generation Z learners who prefer learning through experience. Further study may look into cognitive gains arising from the immersive experience.
Keywords: Immersion, Role-playing, Play, Engagement, Gamified learning
AH03An Argument for Virtues Education in the General Education Curriculum of the Philippines
Author: Nicolo M. Masakayan
Abstract: This paper argues that virtues education should be included in the General Education (GE) curriculum taken by Filipino college students. The current GE program focuses on values, skills, and competencies, and makes no explicit mention of virtues. In this paper I will assert, using Benson’s theory on “values language,” that the GE program for Filipino college students should integrate some form of virtues education. Virtues are preferable to values, according to Benson, since the latter can connote and promote values relativism, while the former promotes the notion of shared and objectively true standards. This paper will focus on the GE curriculum approved by CHED and show how virtues, not values, can help students meet the program’s objectives.
In the first section I discuss the 2018 GE curriculum, in particular its emphasis on values, skills, and competencies. I also discuss the core Ethics course in which values and virtues are both tackled. In the second section I discuss Benson’s argument against values language and his recommendation for the promotion of virtues education. Benson in particular attacks the idea of “values language” for its ambiguity and connection to ethical relativism. I focus on Benson’s argument that focusing back on virtues is a move away from relativism, and virtues language is an excellent replacement for values language in education. In the third section I demonstrate how virtues education can be integrated into the GE curriculum. I show how intellectual virtues work alongside intellectual capacities and moral virtues work alongside civic responsibilities and practical skills. I also present the case that there is no need to use formal lectures on virtue ethics and virtue epistemology in order to integrate virtues education into our GE curriculum and existing lectures and activities can simply be modified. In the fourth section I discuss some possible criticisms about virtues education, one of which is that no strong connection exists between teaching virtue and actual virtuous behavior. Another important issue is that teaching virtues, if improperly done, can also lead to confusion and relativism. I conclude by reiterating that values language only confuses and misleads the general and moral education of Filipinos, and the solution is to replace it with virtues language and virtues education.
Keywords: General education, Values education, Virtues education, Values language, Virtue epistemology
AH04Oblation on our minds: Teaching Oblation in the time of the pandemic
Author: John Leihmar C. Toledo
Abstract: Following Reuben Cañete’s analysis on Oblation as a historical construction of ritualization and profanity, and the epistemic problematic of postcolonial nationalism in the invented tradition, this study attempts to demystify mythologies surrounding the Oblation from the notions of 21 st century learners, that is among selected students of ARTS 1 in the first term of the semester struck with the pandemic (2020). This study proves Cañete’s claim that the myths surrounding Oblation in the selfie culture has always served the dominant perspective, that of ritualizing sacrifice through the symbol, a historical performance of an invented tradition that still persists today as a cautionary tale among those entering or graduating from the university. However, the other opposite of the binary, that of the profane or the secular has continued to represent the Oblation as a student body engaged in nationalist democratic movements, human rights activism, and identity, gender, and sexual politics. They are the critical mass motivated to engage with the Oblation as an open and fluid symbol. This study prescribes a method of teaching artistic representation and aesthetics through an anti-essentialist and discursive critique of the statements surrounding the Oblation through various ways of seeing.
Keywords: Oblation, Problematic, Selfie culture, Sacred, Profane, Critical Pedagogy
BS01Additional Accounts of Marine Macrobenthic Chlorophytes in Panay from the Intertidals of Sibato Island, Caluya, Antique, Philippines
Authors: Nicci Rosietess E. Madarcos and Nerissa K. Torreta
Abstract: Covid-19 pandemic has revealed the demand for self-sufficiency and food security in the country. Most often, people consume food limited to what the isles and stocks of the grocery stores provide. Hence, a less diverse nutritional diet. Nevertheless, such issue on food security may be addressed by directing options to alternative food sources that are abundantly available around and within the locality.
One to consider are edible marine algae or sea vegetables like the popular Caulerpa species commonly known as sea grapes or “lato”. Caulerpa belongs to a group of marine macroalgae known as Chlorophytes or green macroalgae. Members of this group are utilized as human food, medicines, aquatic feeds and fodder, and plant growth regulators on top of being important ecological and biological components of the marine ecosystems. Marine seaweeds, are also considered one of the promising yet untapped natural resources.
This research provides an inventory of macroalgal species present, their diversity, abundance, and distribution as well as identification of those that can be consumed as food. This also presents additional and updated records of marine microbenthic chlorophytes for Panay in which the most recent accounts recorded was in 1992.
The study was conducted in the intertidal zones of the island of Sibato in Caluya, Antique. Exhaustive sampling was done using the line-intercept method. Green macroalgal species encountered along the transect were collected, measured, and identified. Those encountered outside transects were also noted. Computation of the diversity index, and generation of graph and dendogram were accomplished using Past 4.02.
A total of 18 taxa belonging to orders Bryopsidales, Cladophorales and Ulvales were identified from the investigation. Simpson’s index revealed a diversity index of 0.72. Of the18 taxa, 13 are identified to be sea vegetables. In addition, new records include Codium fragile, Codium geppiorum, and Valonia fastigiata.
Keywords: Chlorophytes, Seaweed, Intertidals, Biodiversity, Panay
BS02Diversity of Vertebrate Wildlife from Selected Forest over Limestone Areas in Samar Island, Philippines
Authors: Desamarie Antonette P. Fernandez and Paul John S. Tolentino
Abstract: The Philippines possesses extensive forest over limestone areas, but the diversity of vertebrate wildlife from these ecosystems, particularly in Samar Island, is not well studied. A total of 8 transects for faunal diversity assessment were established in selected municipalities of Samar Island, Philippines, namely, Paranas, Taft, and Guiuan. Various standard methods to assess vertebrate wildlife diversity were used within the established transects. All animals were immediately released after species identification using morphometrics, photographs and taxonomic references. Five amphibian species, 20 bird species, 20 reptile species, 8 non-volant mammal species, and 6 volant mammal species were recorded. PAleontological STatistics Version 4.03 (PAST) was used to compute for the diversity indices of vertebrate wildlife encountered during the fieldwork. Amphibian, reptile and bird species diversity were the highest in Paranas, while mammal species diversity was highest in Taft. The continuous degradation of the forests over limestone areas in the Samar Island, which are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances, imposes threats to these natural resources. Threatened species were also noted in this assessment, highlighting the need for the conservation of these animals. Knowledge about the biodiversity of Samar’s forests over limestone is crucial gaining international support for its conservation and protection which can also help to highlight the aesthetic geological values of the karst landscapes in a global stage.
Keywords: Vertebrate wildlife, Biodiversity, Kaigangan, Forest over limestone, Samar Island
BS03Ecology of Understory Plants Recorded from Forests over Limestone in Samar Island, Philippines
Authors: Marjorie D. delos Angeles, Ren Divien R. Obeña, Elaine Loreen C. Villanueva, Paul John S. Tolentino, and Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.
Abstract: Varying floral species richness, composition, and abundance as a result of environmental conditions are evident. In documenting understory plant species in established plots from Paranas, Taft, and Guiuan, the line intercept technique was used. Edaphic factors were analyzed such as % organic matter (OM), % Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Electrical Conductivity, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Cl. Cluster and ordination analysis were used and edaphic factors were analyzed. A total of 26 understory plant species were recorded from the different established plots across the municipalities of Paranas, Taft, and Guiuan. From the twenty-six, six fern species belonging to 6 genera from 6 families were recorded. Whereas a total 21 flowering plant species belonging to 13 genera and from 9 families were also recorded. Based on the forest floor census, highest species richness occurs in Paranas and was recorded to have a total of 18 understory plant species followed by Taft with 12 and Guiuan with 5. A lower species diversity in Guiuan may be attributed to the possibility that the forests over limestone in the area is still recovering from the heavy rains and destructive winds of typhoon Haiyan which hit the island in 2013. Plant species composition were similar among plots established in the sites Paranas and Taft (ANOSIM, R global = -0.02366, P > 0.05) and between Taft and Guiuan (ANOSIM, R global = 0.009259, P > 0.3518). These similarities can be accounted by proximity of sites between Paranas and Taft.
Results from soil analysis revealed variations in soil chemical characteristics. Soil pH values across sites were identified to be slightly acidic. Generally, percent OM was high in all plots. Percent OM was highest in Guiuan (16.44%) and lowest in Taft (9.61%). Variation in average soil OM across sites can be explained by differences in vegetation cover, amount of leaf litter, and continuous rain promoting decomposition. Similarly, total N and P is high and above threshold levels in all plots. Total Average N was recorded to be highest in Guiuan (0.63) and lowest in Taft (0.47). Interestingly, most of the analyzed edaphic factors are uncharacteristic of forests over limestones. The analyzed edaphic factors were found correlated based on the resulting CCA with the first two axis explaining 36.68% of the variation and patterns among understory plant species. Understory plant species recorded from Paranas and Taft are highly affected by Fe and EC. Plant species from Guiuan on the other hand is positively correlated with pH, OM%, N%, P, Cl, K, Cu, Mn, Mg, Na, and Zn. A negative correlation was observed between Fe and pH. Understanding key environmental factors are equally important in biodiversity assessment and can indicate overall environmental quality.
Keywords: Edaphic factors, Flora, Kaigangan, Forest over limestone, Samar Island
Mathematics, Computer Science, and Statistics
MCS01An explicit generalized inverse approximation of metric projections onto level sets
Authors: Ariel L. Babierra, Noli N. Reyes
Abstract: A metric projection of a given point onto a set is a point of the set that is nearest to the given point. In a general sense, even if the set is well-characterized, the problem of solving for an explicit form of a metric projection is an almost impossible task. Instead, we rely on approximations of metric projections for computations and in applications.
In the setting of Hilbert spaces, we propose an approximation of metric projections onto level sets defined by bounded linear operators using its generalized inverse. We also provide an error estimate for the approximation.
Let be a real Hilbert space with norm and . For , is the distance between and We denote by the metric projections of onto which is given by
For closed and convex set in , always exists and is unique.
A generalized inverse allows a form of inversion of bounded linear operators that are not necessarily invertible. Let be a bounded linear operator. The generalized inverse of is a linear operator defined on a dense subset of taking values also in . For , is the minimal norm least squares solution to the equation .
Let be a closed range bounded linear operator. We consider level sets of the form for some .
The set is a closed and convex subset of . For , we establish as an approximation of and show that
Here, denotes the adjoint operator of and and are operator norms.
Keywords: Hilbert spaces, Bounded linear operators, Metric projection onto level sets, Generalized inverse, Error estimate
MCS02An Alternative Analysis of AVL Trees and Binary Heaps
Authors: Russel L. Villacarlos, Maria Art Antonette D. Clariño, Arian J. Jacildo, and Jaime M. Samaniego
Abstract: In this paper, we provide a simple alternative analysis for the height of AVL trees and the running time of the build-heap algorithm. In our analysis of AVL trees we present two simple properties of AVL trees and use them to directly prove that , where is the minimum number of nodes needed to construct an AVL tree with height and is Fibonacci number. The first property shows that an AVL tree with elements can be constructed from a tree with elements by only adding leaves. This property implies that if we construct an AVL Tree of height from an initially empty tree, then the nodes of the final tree can be divided into groups based on the period they were added as leaves.
The second property shows that if is the number of leaves of the minimum sized AVL tree of height , then . This property gives a more direct connection between the AVL tree and the Fibonacci numbers. If we then consider the grouping of nodes earlier, is the sum of the first Fibonacci numbers. Since the sum of the first Fibonacci number is known to be equal to , the bound for follows. Since it is known that , where is the golden ratio, it follows that with being the number of elements in the tree.
For our analysis of build-heap, the key idea is the heap-merging interpretation of the algorithm. First, we treat the array as a forest containing n heaps, of level 1 each. We then view the sift- down operation of the algorithm as a merging operation that combines one heap of level 1, called the parent heap, with two heaps with level at most , called child heaps, to produce a child heap of level . Initially, the parent heaps are those elements belonging to the upper half of the array, while the remaining half are the child heaps. The build-heap algorithm then becomes a sequence of merges that produces a single heap.
The new interpretation of build-heap allows us to use a very simple potential function in terms of the levels of heaps in the forest. The forest initially contains heaps of level 1 thus the initial potential is . After merging all the heaps, the level of the final heap is .We prove that the time taken by a sift-down operation is proportional to potential loss in the process. This shows that the amortized cost of a sift-down is constant, which then lead to the time bound for the running-time of build-heap.
Keywords: Worst-case analysis, Potential function, Data structures, Binary search tree, Binary heap
MCS03Forecasting COVID-19 cases in the Philippines using various mathematical models
Authors: Monica C. Torres, Christian Alvin H. Buhat, Ben Paul B. Dela Cruz, Edd Francis O. Felix, Eleanor B. Gemida, and Jonathan B. Mamplata
Abstract: Due to the rapid increase of COVID-19 infection cases in many countries such as the Philippines, many efforts in forecasting the daily infections have been made in order to better manage the pandemic and respond effectively. In this study, we consider the cumulative COVID-19 infection cases in the Philippines from March 6 to July 31, and forecast the cases from August 1 – 15 using various mathematical models−weighted moving average, exponential smoothing, Susceptible- Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, and random forest. We then compare the results to the actual data using traditional error metrics. Our results show that ARIMA(1,2,1) model has the closest forecast values to the actual data. Policymakers can use our result in determining which forecast method to use for their community in order to have a data-based information for the preparation of their personnel and facilities.
Keywords: Forecasting epidemics, Moving average, Exponential smoothing, ARIMA, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck, SEIR, Random forest
MCS04Analysis on Extreme Rainfall under a Changing Climate in Selected Locations in the Philippines
Authors: Pearl Thrisha T. Ponce and Felino P. Lansigan
Abstract: The study estimated the extreme maximum rainfall under different climate scenarios. The study aimed to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall per location and analyze and compare the rainfall distribution of the historical rainfall data versus the projected rainfall data across the three climate change scenarios. Historical rainfall data was gathered from three locations in the Philippines namely: Legazpi City, Albay; Iloilo City, Iloilo; and Davao City, Davao del Sur. The projected rainfall was generated through a weather data generator named LARS-WG across RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5. Hydrologic frequency analysis was used to estimate the magnitude of the extreme maximum rainfall. It was computed for each location using the historical data and the projected rainfall data. Results showed that there was an increase in the extreme maximum rainfall across RCPs for Legazpi City and Iloilo City. Meanwhile, extreme maximum rainfall across RCPs decreased for Davao City. The results obtained will help engineers for planning and building flood control infrastructures and to utilize it during drought season.
Keywords: RCP, Extreme maximum rainfall, Hydrologic frequency analysis, LARS-WG, Climate change scenarios
MCS05Determining Extreme Rainfall Magnitudes in Climate Change Scenarios in selected Areas in the Philippines
Authors: Orange Gwen D. Torres and Felino P. Lansigan
Abstract: The study used Gumbel’s method to estimate rainfall magnitudes for both historical and synthetic weather data generated using the CMIP5 model with the HADGem2-ES emission under the RCPs 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 using LARS-WG for selected locations Butuan, Agusan del Norte, Echague, Isabela, and La Granja, Negros Occidental. Historical data that was considered had 36 years of annual maximums for each location to represent the time periods 2021-2050 and 2051- 2080 of generated weather data. The magnitudes that were computed vary among location under various return periods which are 10, 20, 40, 100, 200, and 1000 years which will be of great contribution for future hydrologic designs. It was found out that as the return period increases, rainfall magnitudes do as well but for time periods, magnitudes did not necessarily increase with it, showing variation in this case per location. The data generated exhibited higher values than that of the current climate.
Keywords: Rainfall, Gumbel, Hydrologic frequency analysis, LARS-WG, RCP
PS01Production and Characterization of Mannooligosaccharides from Hydrolysis of Mannan Sources by Bacillus licheniformis Beta-Mannanase Expressed in a Food Grade System
Authors: Louelle Sheryl Go, Sheryl Lozel Arreola, Dietmar Haltrich, and Thu-Ha Nguyen
Abstract: Prebiotics improve the overall health of an animal by maintaining a healthy intestinal microbiota. A candidate prebiotic, mannooligosaccharides (MOS), may be produced by hydrolysis of mannan by the action of β-mannanase. This study investigated the propensity of crude β-mannanase to hydrolyze different mannan sources. In the study, β-mannanase from Bacillus licheniformis was expressed in a food-grade system Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Its crude cell extracts were then used for enzymatic hydrolysis of several mannan sources. Results of HPAEC-PAD and TLC showed hydrolysis of mannan and production of MOS from locust bean gum, copra meal, guar gum, spent coffee ground, and konjac glucomannan. The use of crude extract from this food grade system consequently reduce cost and activity losses from enzyme purification. This study also produced safe and healthy food products, which has potential applications in food and feed industries.
Keywords: Mannooligosaccharides, Mannanase, Mannan, Prebiotic, Lactic acid bacteria
PS02The weight of the hourglass as the transient response of the scale
Author: Junius Andre F. Balista
Abstract: The weight of a running hourglass registered on a scale differs from the weight of the hourglass at rest and depends on time. Previous explanations [1-4] focused on the dynamics of the grains only and neglected the weighing scale. The most recent work, Sack and Pöschel , used sub-volumes to analyze the acceleration of the center-of-mass (COM) of the granular materials and derived the weight from the Lagrangian tracking of trajectory of the COM. However, some fine structures of the weight remain unaccounted. The model is also complicated and involved many equations.
Here we explain the weight of an hourglass as the transient response of a lumped system to the granular flow. We model the lumped system, consisting of the weighing scale and the hourglass chambers, as a damped driven harmonic oscillator. The driving force is due to granular flow from the upper to the lower chamber and described by the partially overlapping negative and positive boxcar functions, whose magnitudes are the Beverloo correlation [1, 5] and the flow speed.
Our model is simpler than Sack and Pöschel’s yet it accounted for their experiment. Thus, we advocate the use transient response analysis as a first attempt to explain mechanical phenomena.
Keywords: Mechanics, Granular flow, Transient response, Hourglass, Weighing scale
PS03Superconducting properties of Indium-added Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 O8+d (Bi-2212) films
Authors: Francesca Isabel N. de Vera and Roland V. Sarmago
Abstract: Granularity remains one of the main challenges in the advancement of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) films. Developments in heat treatment processes have been shown to improve the granular characteristics of HTS. Recent studies showed that indium can enhance the sintering properties of bulk Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 O8+d (Bi-2212). In this study, we explore the possibility of using indium as a potential partial melting agent by examining the effects of indium addition on the structure, morphology and transport properties of Bi-2212 films. Bi-2212 films with indium addition of (0, 0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, and 3wt%) were deposited on top of an MgO (100) substrate using sedimentation deposition technique. The annealing temperatures were reduced by 10ºC with increasing indium content from 840ºC for pure Bi-2212 to 810ºC for 3wt%. X-ray diffraction was used to detect phase formation, crystal structure and film texture. Surface morphology was compared using scanning electron microscope. Transport measurements were conducted to determine the superconducting transition temperature and critical current density. XRD results showed that In-added films are predominantly Bi-2212 phase with no significant lattice distortion indicating that indium was not incorporated into the Bi-2212 crystal. The lotgering factor representing film texture increased from 0.8312 to 0.9246 at 1.5wt% indium addition. There is a considerable improvement in the surface morphology of Bi-2212 at 0.5wt% and 1.5wt% indium added films exhibiting smoother regions with no visible micro-cracks and reduced rod-like features. The onset transition temperatures (Tc,onset) of all films are all greater than 84K. The highest Tc,onset was measured for 1.5wt% at 93K which is 10K higher compared to pure Bi-2212 film. A 2-fold increase critical current density was also observed for 1.5wt% at 1.2kA/cm 2 . The improvement in the superconducting transport properties of In-added Bi-2212 films are attributed to the enhancement in grain alignment and surface morphology despite the reduced annealing temperatures. This demonstrates the potential of using indium as partial melting agent in fabrication of Bi-2212 films.
Keywords: High temperature superconductors, Superconducting films, Transport properties, Crystal structure, Surface morphology
PS04Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using a Commercial Papaya Supplement and Their Use as Fluorescent Sensors for Folic Acid
Authors: Ma. Danica A. Magpantay and Mariam C. Recuenco
Abstract: Green synthesis offers an inexpensive and non-toxic route for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles for various applications. A commercially-available papaya supplement containing mainly papain was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Electron microscopy showed that the papain-stabilized AgNPs were spherical with sizes ranging from 3-40 nm, with an average diameter of 11.4 ± 6.4 nm. The AgNPs exhibited a surface plasmon resonance at 420 nm. The nanoparticles also exhibited fluorescence upon excitation at 320 nm. The synthesized AgNPs were then evaluated as possible fluorescent sensors folic acid. Folic acid or vitamin B 9 is an essential cofactor from the synthesis of the genetic material. Proper supply of this vitamin is important during pregnancy. Addition of microliter quantities of folic acid to the AgNPs resulted in the decreased fluorescence intensities. Fitting the responses to the Stern-Volmer equation revealed strong linear relationships. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.510 μg and 5.033 μg, respectively. The AgNPs were then tested for the determination of the folic acid contents of three over-the-counter supplements. The experimental content of one brand, having folic acid as the main component, was relatively close to the manufacturer’s claim (16% error). For the other two, the contents were way too large by 500-800%. These samples contain various minerals and other vitamins which could have interfered in the analysis. This study showed the potential of green synthesized-AgNPs as sensors for folic acid. Future studies should explore proper preparations of samples, including isolation of folic acid from other components.
Keywords: Folic acid, Fluorescence, Green synthesis, Silver nanoparticles
PS05Reinvestigation of the Sn 4d line shape of Sn/Ge(111) 3×3: STM and PES
Author: Ivy R. Colambo
Abstract: The room temperature (RT) √3x√3 and the low temperature (LT) 3×3 surfaces of Sn/Ge(111) were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). The Sn/Ge(111)√3x√3 surface was prepared under different conditions. Based on the study, the conditions that produced the best √3x√3 surface (low defect density and minimal area covered by islands and disorder) are the following: i) Sn coverage of 0.38 ML, ii) sample temperature slightly above that corresponding to the c(2×8) to 1×1 transition (235-260°C). This optimum preparation was used for the STM and PES study of the LT 3×3 phase. The apparent height distribution of the Sn atoms in the 3×3 phase was analyzed in detail and discussed in relation to the Sn 4d core-level line shape. Two peaks were observed in the apparent height distribution of the Sn atoms corresponding to the up and down atoms constituting the 3×3 reconstruction. Simulated Sn 4d core-level spectra were generated from the distribution by assuming a linear relation between the apparent height and the core-level binding energy. The simulated spectra are compared to experimental spectra appearing in the literature.
Keywords: Tin, Germanium, STM, Core-level
SS01Japanese Politics and the Deployment of Filipino Overseas Workers: The Case of Nurses and Caregivers
Authors: Norbert Norris Bonifacio Z. Falguera and Yuya Harada
Abstract: In Third World economies as that of the Philippines, these massive inflows of remittances have been playing a very vital role to their growth and survival. Not only do they benefit the recipient-households; they also have certain macroeconomic impacts on their country’s growth and development, and this is shown in their development indicators. The Philippines is one of the largest – if not the largest – exporter of labor in the world. In the medical and health profession, Filipino nurses and caregivers are known to be among the best in the world, and their reputation have reached hospitals, clinics, and care homes in the United States, Canada, Europe and the Middle East. This paper focuses on the political factors that affect the deployment of Filipino caregivers and nurses to Japan. It looks into why the deployment of Filipino nurses and caregivers is still limited despite the bilateral agreement between the Philippines and Japan. It likewise looks into the process of the deployment, from recruitment of these nurses and caregivers in the Philippines to their formal appointment as workers in Japanese hospitals. It likewise looks into how cultural differences affect these Filipino nurses and caregivers and how they adjust to these cultural differences.
SS02Of “Social Distancing” and “Lockdowns”: Cultural History in Public Health Historiographies of the Philippines
Author: Ryan Alvin M. Pawilen
Abstract: This is not the first time that the country experienced a pandemic. The typical reaction of research would look at the people and processes behind policy-making, the enforcement of these policies, and the general reaction of the populace to these policies. Having experienced similar events in the past, history also becomes a valuable tool of research and assessment. However, a holistic and community approach to policy-making begs a deeper analysis to the general reaction of the public. How did the Filipinos react before? Why did they react that way? What can we learn from this perspective that may help us reconsider our policies? This is not a new research for historians but the factor of culture presented in these studies seems to have been glossed over or simply remained unrecognized.
Therefore, focusing on cultural history in line with the tradition of “history from below” by Reynaldo Ileto and “history of the inarticulate” by William Henry Scott, the paper utilized historiography as a method of analysis and writing. This study analyzed how various historical secondary sources processed, perceived, and presented the influence of culture to state medical policies against diseases in the country. Included renowned works were Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines by Linda Newson, Agents of Apocalypse: Epidemic Diseases in the Colonial Philippines by Ken De Bevoise, Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Philippines by Warwick Anderson, and Kalusugang Pampubliko sa Kolonyal na Maynila (1898-1918) by Ronaldo Mactal, and the articles from the special issue of the Philippine Studies Journal Volume 57, Number 2, June of 2009, entitled “Public Health in History.”
Based on the preliminary data, one of the challenges in enforcing similar policies to the concepts of social distancing and lockdowns is the communal culture of the Philippines that puts emphasis on taking care of family members. Having and preserving a family in times of need had great significance. Suffering or dying alone seemed to have been a far greater suffering than taking a risk of spreading the disease to family members. Having a sense of normalcy in spite of the dangers of a disease also became a coping mechanism so to speak.
In policy-making, understanding the culture of the people both in the present situation and similar historical precedents arguably leads to better policies that address not only the physical but also the psycho-emotional aspect of the populace. On the other hand, the paper encourages further historiographical analysis of secondary sources for their already processed data that have social impact, as well as more research on cultural history of the Philippines.
Keywords: Historiography, Cultural history, Pandemics, Culture, Public health
SS03Measuring Wellbeing among Teachers while Preparing for new Classroom Modality
Authors: Merites M. Buot and Rona Montecalbo-Ignacio
Abstract: One of the major thrusts in the Department of Human Kinetics is the continuous assessment of human wellness through relevant activities. Human wellbeing is a major component though. Community Wellbeing (CWB) is a new concept of assessing the level of wellness of the community. Literature has shown proofs that community wellbeing is dependent on a combination of shared community goals, positive social and economic status, a sense of trust in government and private institutions, respect between groups, and a sense of belonging in the community combined it with the principles of good governance and strong partnerships with different sectors of the community. Any development in a community has a direct effect on its community members as well. In the recent past studies, health and well-being were correlated. The assumption that if one is sick, wellbeing goes down. But community wellbeing means a lot more as it involves deep complexities besides physiological wellbeing. The current paper investigated the wellbeing status of the educator sector of the community as the most affected group during this pandemic season while preparing for its academic responsibilities. It was the aim of the paper to determine the factors contributing to individual wellbeing. A twelve statement survey was given to participants after the attendance to the Community Wellbeing Webinar in relation to course material preparation. Satisfaction, sense of control and purpose in life were visible among the respondents. This demonstrates the subjectivity of comfort felt by teachers. In a neighborhood, poor wellbeing can significantly impact the lives and behavior of families, which in turn contributes to a downward spiral of morals, values, and the physical environmental damage.
Keywords: Remote learning, Satisfaction, Sectoral representative, Sense of control, Social wellbeing
SS04Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Student-Athlete: The Adaptive Mindset Within the UP Los Banos Men’s Volleyball Team
Authors: Ronilo Jose D. Flores and Marco Nico O. Aquino
Abstract: Volleyball is arguably one of the most fast-rising team sports in the world. In the case of the Philippines, the prominence of this sport can be largely attributed to the development of collegiate and professional volleyball leagues broadcasted over a gamut of platforms. Prominent volleyball players have emerged throughout the over decade tenure of commercial leagues, ultimately propelling the sport in what it has become. The U.P. Los Baños Men’s Volleyball Team (UPLBMVT) is a very promising group composed of 25 young talented volleyball players dedicated to achieve their maximum potential through a holistic volleyball program, focusing on developing good habits in and outside of the court. The current UPLBMVT Good Habits Program, anchored on the development of good volleyball and personal skills and attitudes, draws inspiration from the book “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective Young People” by Steven Covey and seeks to create a “Good Habits Paradigm for Volleyball Athlete Development” that promotes health,well-being and a balanced student-athlete life.
The team was preparing for a major tournament when the enhanced community quarantine was suddenly implemented in March of 2020 resulting in the disruption of the training process and the players’ athletic improvement. This study aimed at unraveling the effects of community quarantine regulations on the athletes’ perceived athletic performance, physical activity habits, nutrition habits and well-being during the periods of community quarantine. Surveys and key informant interviews via remote or online means were conducted in order to determine the various facts and considerations for the development of adaptive strategies to address the limitations of community quarantine and help mitigate the threats posed by the COVID-19 pandemic with respect to the promotion of physical activity and health. Data suggests that there was a 4-8 hour decrease in the average time spent for physical activity during the ECQ as compared to pre-ECQ. The time spent for physical activity did not significantly improve with the easing of restrictions to GCQ. Fifty percent (50%) felt that their athletic performance did not improve during the ECQ. This perceived athletic performance increased as the time spent for exercise increased, alongside the easing of community quarantine restrictions. The most common forms of physical activity during ECQ include stationary exercises, stretching and household chores. The repertoire of physical exercise and activities increased as restrictions were relaxed. Careful planning and programming was carried out in the creation of a virtual volleyball varsity program that considered the unique and restrictive nature of the community quarantine, making use of safe allowable spaces, designing exercises aimed to promote physical wellness and volleyball skills and utilizing resources available in their homes. Periodic surveys, random chats and zoom pep talks allowed for the cultivation of team dynamics. Webinars and training sessions with resource persons on a wide range of topics provide a respite from the rigors of online learning and created an impetus for continued physical activity.
Keywords: Athletic performance, Nutrition, Wellness, Training, COVID-19
SS05Colonial Appetites: A gastronomical perspective on the American colonial policy against epizootic disease in the Philippines, 1902-1912
Author: Reidan M. Pawilen
Abstract: Dominant historiographical interpretations on the role of the Americans in addressing public health and epizootic diseases in the Philippines has always revolved around: 1) the improvement of public health, sanitation, and animal disease response in the Philippines, 2) the formation of crucial institutions for health such as the school for veterinary medicine, and 3) the politics of colonizing the body and the environment through health policies and change. This study presents a new perspective on American colonial policy by focusing on food demand, particularly by the military who were stationed here in the Philippines during the American period. With the American army’s arduous task of fighting the Philippine revolutionary forces from 1899 to 1907 as well its role in enforcing quarantines against various human and animal epidemics that frequently plagued the Islands, it became a very important concern for the American colonial government to make sure that the military were well supported and sufficiently fed. Reports of the Bureau of Agriculture that were published in The Philippine Agricultural Review (1909 to 1912) were surveyed for policies regarding the eradication of animal disease particularly rinderpest that was then the most common disease for cattle. Accounts from 12 military divisions posted throughout the Islands were also gathered from the Annual Reports of the War Department from 1902 to 1910 to ascertain the food demands and preferences of the army. Using a gastronomical perspective on reading these primary sources showed that American colonial policies against epizootic diseases in the Philippines were also enacted and prioritized to address issues on beef supply, palatability, military dietary requirements, and Western prejudice against Filipino food. Introducing a gastronomical perspective in the analysis of American policies on health reinforces historical interpretations on health policies being used in aiding the process of colonization. It also provides a more specific and pragmatic understanding as to why certain policies were prioritized over others, an example being the prioritization of eradicating rinderpest over that of crop diseases in 1911, mainly due to factors that are as mundane as the everyday food and dietary requirements of a particular group.
Keywords: Gastronomy, Palatability, Epizootic, Rinderpest, Quarantine
Day 2, Nov 16 (Monday)
Health and Environment
HE01Diversity in Vitex negundo L.: Morphological, Genetic, Histochemical and Molecular Characterization
Author: Nonnatus S. Bautista
Abstract: Lagundi (Vitex negundo L.) is one of the top ten medicinal plants being promoted by the Department of Health in the Philippines. This lecture aims to elucidate the diversity in Vitex negundo L. in the Philippines through morphological, genetic, phytochemical and molecular characterization. Morphologically, leaf characterization of ten V. negundo germplasm collections from National Plant Genetics Research Laboratory (NPGRL ), Institute of Plant Breeding, UP Los Baños based on several leaf characters, such leaf types, shape, margin, apex, base, adaxial and abaxial surfaces were characterized. Foliar trichome anatomy, micromorphology and histochemistry were also evaluated. Based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, there was a common locus or pattern of bands present in all samples from the fifteen geographic locations attributed to the fact that all samples belong to one species. But the samples also exhibited a great number of polymorphisms suggesting genetic variation found within the species due to factors like climate type, topography and soil type. The leaf characters and their morphometric analysis have shown to be essential in elaborating the variations found in the ten germplasm collection where two groups have been formed, one with lanceolate leaves and the other a non-lanceolate leaf shape. Intraspecific variations of foliar trichome morphology that can be classified into six morphotypes were also found evident in the accessions used in the study. The presence of both glandular and non-glandular trichomes and their respective types in all accessions suggests that trichome type is a stable character within the V. negundo accessions. Moreover, foliar trichome histochemistry was carried out to detect the presence or absence of lipid, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites such as terpenes, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and alkaloids. It showed qualitative variations in terms of contents and localization of the major chemical compounds among the tested accessions and between the types of trichomes. This phytochemical variation among accessions of similar species is highly attributed to genetic, biotic and abiotic environmental factors influencing the amount of metabolites present in a plant species and even in different plant parts. The results revealed from the aforementioned studies on genetic diversity, leaf characterization and morphometrics, and foliar trichome micromorphology and histochemistry provided baseline information and can be a helpful tool in resolving taxonomic discrepancies in V. negundo. Regarding the future directions for V. negundo research, it is necessary to have a biorepository of medicinal plants. Molecular and biotechnological approaches such DNA barcoding for rapid and accurate species identification and OMIC technologies (i.e. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, phenomics) are promising and powerful tools that can also be used in identifying genes, proteins, metabolites, mechanistic and physiological actions of medicinal plant species. Lastly, because there are also the threats of losing the vast potential sources of our medicinal plants worldwide due to increasing human population as well as plant consumption. It is imperative to develop breeding strategies and methodologies concerning the conservation and sustainable usage of medicinal plant resources.
Keywords: Vitex negundo, ISSR, Leaf morphology, Foliar richome, Polymorphism
HE02Generation of a Probabilistic Volcanic Ashfall Hazard Map of the 2020 Taal Eruption
Author: Jaderick P. Pabico
HE03Journeys and Challenges: UPLB Biomath COVID-19 Response
Author: Jomar F. Rabajante
FS01Computational Approaches to Materials Science Problems: Investigation of temperature-programmed desorption on select systems through kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.
Author: Marvin A. Albao
Abstract: In this paper, prior efforts by this author to tackle some of the contemporary problems in materials science, particularly on temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of selected systems, using kinetic Monte Carlo techniques as the primary tool, are detailed. In temperature- programmed desorption experiments, pre-adsorbed species are deposited onto a substrate, usually a metal catalyst, at some initial temperature, which is then subsequently raised gradually until all of the surface species have evaporated as detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Some of the nuances involved in TPD are evident during the adsorption of CO on low-indexed tungsten surfaces such as W(100), where there is a longstanding debate as to the nature of the desorbing species. This author has argued in a couple of papers that rather than leaving the W(100) surface in the virgin state, that is, as a molecule, CO dissociates into fragments C and O, before eventually recombining into CO prior to desorption. Evidence for the aforementioned claim consists of DFT calculations showing that the activation barrier to CO dissociation is lower than that of desorption. In another work described in this paper, this author investigated desorption on inhomogeneous surfaces – those populated with defects and impurities which later become nucleation sites for islands – whose desorption spectra exhibit peak-splitting, becoming more pronounced as the degree of inhomogeneity increases. During the early stages of peak splitting, it was observed that desorption order may not necessarily be unity, and could even be fractional, a behavior seen on desorption from island edges. Finally, this paper includes description of the work done by this author (and his co-workers) on temperature-programmed desorption of deuterium on diamond surface C(100), where factors affecting the TPD spectra such as location of the desorption peak, are investigated.
Keywords: Temperature-programmed desorption, Dissociation, Kinetic monte carlo, Catalyst, Nucleation
FS02Pumping Electrons in a Nanojunction Using Time-Varying Gates
Author: Eduardo C. Cuansing, Jr.
Abstract: We study the pumping of electrons through an unbiased quantum dot nanojunction by applying time-varying and periodic gates to the dot and its connections to the leads. We assume a quantum dot with a single energy level that can be pulled up or pushed down by a gate. The dot is attached to left and right leads, acting as electron reservoirs, that are at the same temperatures and chemical potentials. There is no battery attached to the leads. The strength of the couplings between the dot and the leads are also modulated via gates. We do not limit the strength of these couplings and so they can range from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. The time-dependent variations of the electric field supplied by the three gates must be synchronized in order for electrons to be pumped from the left lead to the right lead. We design the pump to have gates that vary non-adiabatically, i.e., the period of variation of the gates are much faster than the speed that the electron can react to the gate variations. In our design, electrons can be pumped using either a two-stroke protocol or a four-stroke protocol. Using nonequilibrium Green’s functions calculations, we are able to determine the electron current and energy current when operating the pump. The four-stroke pump, however, turns out to perform better, in general, than the two-stroke pump because of the extra energy that the four-stroke pumping protocol supplies to the electrons. In the four-stroke pumping protocol, the electrons are pumped with the aid of energy charging and discharging strokes. Since the pumped electrons go in one direction only, i.e., from the left lead to the right lead, once the electrons reach the right lead they are absorbed by the reservoir and can no longer go back to the quantum dot thereby skipping the energy discharging stroke. Therefore, the longer the pumped electrons experience the charging stroke, the better is the performance of the pump. This improvement in performance, however, is limited by the cost of maintaining the charging stroke. At some point, the energy cost of maintaining a long charging stroke becomes greater than the extra energy that the pumped electrons receive thereby lowering the pump’s performance.
Keywords: Quantum pumps, Quantum transport, Quantum thermodynamics, Nonequilibrium Green’s functions, Quantum engines
FS03Charge Transport Properties in Disordered Systems in the Low-frequency Regions
Author: Alvin Karlo G. Tapia
Abstract: The promise of low frequency spectroscopy is to probe the dynamics of charge carriers in a region where time scales range from several Hz to THz frequencies. Specifically, the role of dielectric relaxation, conduction and lattice vibrations become dominant in different regions in the low frequencies. These mechanisms are highly important for applications such as sensing, electromagnetic shielding, energy-storage systems, and electronics, among others. There are numerous number of materials that have electronic applications. Also, the emergence of the discovery of conducting polymers and its composites, disordered materials, gave way to the possibility of low-cost processing and fabrication of electronic devices. This requires the mapping of the properties of such materials in a wide frequency range for determining the fundamental properties of the material for development and knowledge about structure-property- dynamics relationships for technological aspects.
Keywords: Disordered materials, Conducting polymers, Impedance spectroscopy, Ultrafast spectroscopy, THz time-domain spectroscopy
Local History and Culture
LHC01Factors affecting alcoholism among young adults in the Philippines
Author: Lorenzo Kristian C. Balayan
Abstract: Alcoholism is defined as the severe form of alcohol abuse which involves difficulty or complete inability to manage drinking habits and consumption. The causes of alcoholism or alcohol use disorder is still unknown, though there are suspected risk factors for alcoholism. This study aims to determine the factors that affect alcohol consumption among young adults in the Philippines using personal background and lifestyle variables as predictors.
The data used in the study were from the 2013 Young Adult Fertility & Sexuality Survey (YAFS4) conducted by the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) and the Demographic Research and Development Foundation, Inc. (DRDF). Alcohol consumption was used whether the respondent may be an alcoholic or not. A binomial logistic regression was performed, and the results showed that violent tendencies and social mood are the common factors that can cause a young adult to become an alcoholic in the Philippines and the likelihood of a young adult being an alcoholic is lowest when he/she is from the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and has not tried smoking or taking any drugs. The study may help lessen the chances of alcoholism among young adults as well as help local government units design programs to lessen alcohol-related problems in the community.
Keywords: Young adult, Alcoholism, Alcohol consumption, Personal background and lifestyle, logistic Regression
LHC02Time Series Analysis of Crime Incidence in Quezon Province from Year 2013 to 2018
Author: Cielo Marie A. Castañeda
Abstract: Quezon Province has listed the most numerous crime incidences in the Philippines. Crime incidence reported in a constant time interval can be regarded as a time series. This study focused on identifying different factors that affect crime incidence in Quezon Province using transfer functions in time series analysis. From the 72-point observations, we arrived at an ARIMA (1, 1, 0) model and ARMA (2, 0) for index and non-index crimes, respectively. The socio-economic variables such as Administration, Q1K policy, CPI, Inflation Rate, and, Purchasing Power of Peso and vital statistics namely Birth Number, Marriage Number, Death Number, that were found to have an impact on crime but it does not necessarily mean that they have a quantitative effect on index crimes whereas Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Q1K policy are the only significant factor for index and non-index crimes, respectively.
Keywords: Time series, Parametric model, Crime incidence, Quezon Province, ARIMAX
LHC03Ang Pagbabagong Anyo ng Grove sa Konteksto ng Paglikha sa Bayan ng Los Baños bilang ‘College Town’, 1929-Kasalukuyan
Authors: Gilbert E. Macarandang (co-authored with Prof. Dwight David A. Diestro)
Abstract: Hindi maihihiwalay ang pagbabagong anyo ng Grove (dating kilala sa pangalang Coconut Grove) sa konteksto ng paglikha sa bayan ng Los Baños bílang ‘College Town’ dahil sa pagkakatatag dito ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas – Kolehiyo ng Agrikultura [kilala ito sa kasalukuyan bilang Unibersidad ng Pilipinas Los Baños (UPLB)] noong 1909. Parehong produkto ng kolonyalismong Amerikano ang Grove at UPLB na tinitingnan bilang pampublikong espasyo. Sinasagisag ng una ang pagtatagumpay ng pamahalaang Amerikano para sa pagpapaunlad ng ekonomiya at hanapbuhay ng mga Pilipino samantalang sinisimbolo ng huli ang edukasyong makapagbibigay sa kanila ng kaalaman para sa pagdebelop ng mga teknolohiyang magagamit sa agrikultura. Sa orihinal na anyo nito bilang taniman ng niyog, unti- unting magiging ‘commercial’ at ‘residential’ ang Grove na tumutugon sa pangangailangan ng mga kawani at estudyante ng UPLB. Sa pag-aaral na ito, nais ipakita kung paanong inilarawan ng mga Amerikano ang Grove bilang espasyong kultural na nagpapakita ng pabago-bagong kahulugan nito batay sa pagtingin/paggamit nito para sa ekonomikong interes ng grupong ‘The American Chamber of Commerce’. Inugat din sa pag-aaral kung paanong binago ng UPLB ang karakter ng Grove mula sa pagiging taniman ng niyog tungo sa pagiging urbanisadong pook nito na nahahati sa ‘commercial district’ at ‘bar district’ na katangiang nakapaloob sa konsepto ng ‘College Town’ na dinalumat ni Blake Gumprecht.
Keywords: Coconut Grove/Grove, UPLB, ‘College Town’, Urbanisadong pook, Espasyong kultural